Processing Spodumene by Froth Flotation for Lithium Extraction
Spodumene theoretically contains 8.03% Li2O and therefore the production of this mineral is greatly increasing because of the expanded use of lithium in the manufacture of high temperature insoluble lubricants, ceramics, pyrotechnics, non-ferrous welding fluxes, air purifying agents, and hydrogen isotopes.
Jaggery is a traditional non-centrifugal cane sugar consumed in South Asia, Southeast Asia and some other countries in Asia and the Americas. It is a concentrated product of cane juice and often date or palm sap (see: palm sugar) without separation of the molasses and crystals, and can vary from golden brown to dark brown in colour.
A. Abutment - In coal mining, (1) the weight of the rocks above a narrow roadway is transferred to the solid coal along the sides, which act as abutments of the arch of strata spanning the roadway; and (2) the weight of the rocks over a longwall face is transferred to the front abutment, that is, the solid coal ahead of the face and the back abutment, that is, the settled packs behind the face.
Glossary of Mining Terms - Rock, Mineral and Fossil ...
Back — The roof or upper part in any underground mining cavity. Backfill — Mine waste or rock used to support the roof after coal removal. Barren — Said of rock or vein material containing no minerals of value, and of strata without coal, or containing coal in seams too thin to be workable.